Teaching Metacognition


Sites

List of Metacognitive Strategies

Strategies that could be used as metacognitive strategies include but are not limited to the following:
• Reading the objectives of the material if they are stated before the reading material
• Prereading (surveying)
• Asking questions such as;
• What is this material about?
• Do I already know something about this?
• Should I read this quickly or slowly?
• What do I need to know?
• Did I learn all the important ideas?"
• Identifying main ideas and details by using section headings or questions in the text or margin
• Reading and reviewing short sections to make sure you understand the content before moving on
• Making inferences
• Formulating hypotheses
• Making predictions
• Drawing conclusions
• Self motivation tactics including:
• Positive self-talk
• Recognizing and understanding your moods
• Relaxation tactics including:
• Deep breathing
• Muscle relaxation
Annotated link: http://diigo.com/0grtu


Metacognition and Study Strategies, Monitoring and Motivation by William Peirce

Books

Teaching-Thinking-Philosophical-Enquiry-Classroom by Robert Fisher
Teaching Children to Learn by Robert Fisher
Games for Thinking by Robert Fisher
Teaching How to Learn in a What to Learn Culture by Kathleen Ricards Hopkins

Articles

Metacognition and Cognitive Strategy Instruction
Although most individuals of normal intelligence engage in metacognitive regulation when confronted with an effortful cognitive task, some are more metacognitive than others. Those with greater metacognitive abilities tend to be more successful in their cognitive endeavors. The good news is that individuals can learn how to better regulate their cognitive activities. Most often, metacognitive instruction occurs within Cognitive Strategy Instruction programs.

Cognitive Strategy Instruction (CSI) is an instructional approach which emphasizes the development of thinking skills and processes as a means to enhance learning. The objective of CSI is to enable all students to become more strategic, self-reliant, flexible, and productive in their learning endeavors (Scheid, 1993). CSI is based on the assumption that there are identifiable cognitive strategies, previously believed to be utilized by only the best and the brightest students, which can be taught to most students (Halpern, 1996). Use of these strategies have been associated with successful learning (Borkowski, Carr, & Pressley, 1987; Garner, 1990).

Metacognition enables students to benefit from instruction (Carr, Kurtz, Schneider, Turner & Borkowski, 1989; Van Zile-Tamsen, 1996) and influences the use and maintenance of cognitive strategies. While there are several approaches to metacognitive instruction, the most effective involve providing the learner with both knowledge of cognitive processes and strategies (to be used as metacognitive knowledge), and experience or practice in using both cognitive and metacognitive strategies and evaluating the outcomes of their efforts (develops metacognitive regulation). Simply providing knowledge without experience or vice versa does not seem to be sufficient for the development of metacognitive control (Livingston, 1996).

The study of metacognition has provided educational psychologists with insight about the cognitive processes involved in learning and what differentiates successful students from their less successful peers. It also holds several implications for instructional interventions, such as teaching students how to be more aware of their learning processes and products as well as how to regulate those processes for more effective learning.
References:
http://gse.buffalo.edu/fas/shuell/cep564/metacog.htm


Videos

Metacognition - Learning about Learning:
The actual Prezi link is here...

Critical Thinking as a form of Metacognition
Metacognition and reading rhyme...

Strategies for Metacognition and Reading...

Metacognitive Strategies